On the author, research and publication: A critical look
– Part 2 –
Dr. Longjam Krishnamangol *
Manipur University Library in April 2012 :: Pix – Phurailatpam Banti
Here, a brief observation can be made regarding the past controversy of using data/information on the total geographical area of Manipur obtained at the time of the state merger agreement (i.e. say Manipur). Here, I do not attempt to answer them. Now the question is: is the presence of the state necessary to ban a book? So who will be the arbiter? In fact, the Ph.D. is awarded to a researcher/student according to the rules and regulations of the Ph.D.
And, usually or generally, full academic freedom is given to the university in matters of teaching and research. Also, the academic researcher is awarded the Ph.D. for their original contributions or entire contributions to any branch or field of knowledge or discipline/subject.
In research and in stages of research there are areas or stages where things are given for introduction and also for brief review or to give a passing reference as a background of research or as a prelude to research problems. But, its main interest is to investigate the main topic of research problems. In fact, as already stated, a researcher/student has obtained a doctorate in the relevant subject after fulfilling all the necessary requirements according to the rules and regulations of the doctorate of the respective university.
Regarding the controversial part of the use of data/information on the geographical area of Manipur at the time of the “merger agreement” (i.e. before 1949), the data or estimates of the total geographical area of Manipur were used by individual authors. In fact, data on the total area of Manipur was scarce at that time.
However, according to R Brown, data or information on the total area of Manipur (i.e. before 1873, the year of publication of R. Brown’s book, Statistical Account of the Native State of Manipur and The Hill Territory under its Rule) are between 7 and 8,000 square miles, and that of the valley proper about 650 square miles (Brown, R, 1873: 1)
It is further stated that as the country (i.e. Manipur added) has never been surveyed and mapped, the total area given above is merely approximate and represents the size of the territory (i.e. ie Manipur added) as close as possible. (Ibid. PI). And, there were also many undefined areas at that time.
However, it is found that. “The greatest extent of country under the rule of Manipur is that situated in the hills and inhabited by various tribes, divided, however, into two great sections of Nagas and Kukis” (R Brown, 1873:2) In the account of State of Manipur, Brown further pointed out: “By far the largest tract of country belonging to Manipur is that in the hills surrounding the valley. The total land area of the hill possessions of Manipur (i.e. i.e. the total area of Manipur under the hills) is probably about 7,000 square miles, and the population is estimated at 74,000 (highlanders) (Ibid.1873:1&8).
As Brown had pointed out, “The population of the Manipur Valley and that of the surrounding hills is estimated at about 74,000 highlanders and 65,000 Manipuris, total (‘parenthesis added) 139,000 souls (inhabitants-parenthesis added) – (Ibid.,PI) This was the situation obtained in 1873 (the year of publication of the book) Thus, from the estimates of the account of Brown R, with 7,000 square miles of hills and 650 square miles of valley , the total area of Manipur was 7,650 square miles (Cf. Brown R, 1873: 1 and 8).
And, with some undefined areas, the total area of the state of Manipur was estimated at 8,000 square miles before 1873 (Ibid., PI) Brown, R had also pointed out. “This area (i.e. the above area of 7,000 square miles – bracket added) has gradually expanded since the restoration of Manipur power (i.e. the power of the King of Manipur)
In another estimate, according to TC Hodson, the home state of Manipur consists of about 7000 square miles of hill territory and 1000 square miles of broad valley (Cf. TC Hodson, The Meitheis) (i.e. -say Meitei bracket added) – (First published under the government of East Bengal and Assam, 1908, and printed and published by Akansha Publishing House, New Delhi, 2018: 1). And, TC Hodson described Manipur State Boundaries in more detail (CFTC Hodson), The Meiteis, 1908 reprinted.
It is further observed that the territory of Manipur comprised within the boundaries of the state occupies an area of 7,000 square miles of which a valley of 650 miles constitutes the central part (i.e. the central valley) and the rest is formed by an encircling area of hilly and mountainous country inhabited by various tribes, who were subject to the supreme authority of Manipur (“Muneepoor” by RB Pemberton), CfRB Pemberton The Eastern Frontier of India, (First publisher in 1835 and photographically reproduced and published by Mital Publications in 2018: 21)
In fact, the highest figures of Manipur’s total land area have been estimated at 8,000 square miles. As already pointed out, “The total area of the territory (i.e. the native state of Manipur – bracket added) is between 7 and 8000 square miles (i.e. between 7000 and 8000 square miles – bracket added), and that of the valley about 650 square miles (Brown. R, Statistical account of the native state of Manipur and the hill territory under its rule (1873 and reprinted edition, 2018: 1)
It has also been pointed out, “As the country (i.e. Manipur added) has never been surveyed and mapped, the area shown above is merely approximate and represents the size of the territory (i.e. i.e. Manipur added) as close as possible (Ibid. pl). In fact, it is seen that there were different estimates on the area or size of Manipur as there were many disputed areas. It can however be pointed out that the native state of Manipur was then placed under the sovereignty of a sort (Cf, (Late) Ibungohal, 1960: 10)
Again, in his book Gazetter of Manipur EW Dun also described the boundaries of Manipur (EW Dun, 1886:1&2) Thus the boundaries of Manipur were fixed during the British period in Manipur And according to EW Dun, the boundaries of Manipur were demarcated in 1882. (Cf. EW Dun, 1886:1&2) reprinted by Akansa, 2018:1&2.
Again, a quick look in his book also revealed that he did not give the estimated total area of Manipur. But he clearly described the limits of Manipur. And he clearly indicated that this border with Burma was fixed in 1882 (Cf, EW Dun 1886:2)
In this book, The Naga Tribes of Manipur, T. C. Hodson further pointed out that the state of Manipur contains about 8000 square miles of which 7000 per mile is hilly territory as opposed to valley territory (i.e. the valley region) – (TC Hodson, The Naga Tribes of Manipur, 1911 and reprinted by DK Publishers, 2007: 1)
So, any researcher or any writer/author on the history of Manipur will face many challenges in their task of researching or writing a book on the history of Manipur. It can further be pointed out that the historical aspects of development cannot easily be overlooked in our research of the socio-economic development of Manipur.
To avoid any controversy about the area of Manipur, after the merger agreement, it can be pointed out that the 1961 census of Manipur used 8,000 square miles as the total area of Manipur. Today, the total geographical area of Manipur is measured in terms of square kilometer, which is already known. At present, it is found that Manipur has a total geographical area of 22,327 km². which constitute 0.7 percent of the total area of India. (DES, Economic Survey, Manipur, 2020-21, PI)
It can further be pointed out that 90% of the total geographical area of the state (i.e. 20,089 km²) is hills and the remaining small valley covers 2,238 km², which is only one tenth of the area. total state. State. (Cf. DES Economic Survey Manipur, 2020-21 PI) Here it can be pointed out that in recent years the total land area of Manipur was 22,356 km2, which is now recorded as 22,327 km2. Thus, in researching or publishing a book, the selection/collection and use of data is usually done after careful examination of the data.
To be continued….
* Dr. Longjam Krishnamangol wrote this article for The Sangai Express
The author is an economist and researcher
This article was published on the web on November 01, 2022.